An Introduction to Fish Antibiotics
While fish antibiotics can be helpful under the right circumstances, there are factors that should be eliminated or tested for before antibiotics are used. Water quality and temperature, genetics, parasites, nutrition, and transport can all cause disease, which can lead to bacterial infections. If you’re unsure what is causing disease in your fish, a fish health specialist can help identify possible causes and the rate of bacterial infection.
If all of these contributing factors have been taken into account and an antibiotic is still needed, then there are a number of factors that rely on the ability of the antibiotics to be effective. These factors include whether or not:
The problem is caused by bacteria
The bacteria is sensitive to the antibiotic being used
The antibiotic is being used properly (dosage and treatment intervals)
Other contributing problems have been removed
If all of these factors have been accounted for, there’s a much greater chance of success.
Fish Antibiotics and Bacteria
Fish antibiotics work by controlling the growth of bacteria in a fish for a period of time so that the fish’s immune system can eliminate the bacteria. Most bacteria that infect fish are either gram-positive or gram-negative, with the majority being gram-negative. There are some antibiotics that work better against gram-positive bacteria, and there are others that work better against gram-negative bacteria. The best way to identify bacteria is through a fish health specialist who can culture the organism and determine which antibiotic will work best to treat the infection.
After the correct antibiotic is selected, proper administration is the next step. Proper administration will depend on the antibiotic being used, the infection being treated, and the size of the area/amount of fish being treated, among other factors. Antibiotics can be given by injection, mixed in with food, or administered through bath treatments. A fish health specialist can instruct you on the proper administration of different antibiotics, including the dose, frequency, and duration that they should be used.
Choosing antibiotics wisely and using them properly is very important because the improper use of antibiotics can be dangerous for fish. If too high of a dose is used or the treatment is used for too long, the fish can suffer from organ damage. If the dose is too low or the treatment isn’t long enough, the bacteria won’t be killed or weakened, plus the bacteria could develop resistance to the antibiotic.
Common Fish Antibiotics
Oxytetracycline, quinolones, florfenicol, and sulfa drugs are all considered broad-spectrum antibiotics, which means that they work against a wide variety of bacteria. In most cases, Oxytetracycline works against Flavobacterium columnare (columnaris disease). The penicillins and erythromycin are most effective against gram-positive bacteria, including the Streptococcus species. Using different antibiotics at the same time is generally not recommended because the antibiotics can work against each other.
If used properly, fish antibiotics can be successful in eliminating bacterial infections in fish populations. Because there are many factors that go into the proper diagnosis of infections and the administration of antibiotics, a fish health specialist should be consulted for a safe and successful outcome.
The materials and information provided on this website are not intended to replace the medical advice or services of your veterinarian or other pet health care professional. Consult your own veterinarian if you have medical questions concerning diagnosis, treatment, therapy, or medical attention.